Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and upper oesophagus

Squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, oropharynx and oesophagus are relatively common and are classically associated with heavy alcohol and tobacco use. The dramatic increase in incidence of oropharyngeal cancers over the past three decades has been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. These cancers often remain clinically silent until they are locally advanced, although many can still be treated radically with multimodality treatment. The prognosis depends upon the stage of the disease, and also the age and fitness of the patient, their smoking history and whether or not the tumour is HPV-driven.

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