National rate of tobacco and substance use disorders among hospitalized heart failure patients

Heart failure is the fourth overall principal diagnosis and first among cardiovascular conditions as the reason for hospitalization in the U.S.1 Heart failure is a prevalent condition with several preventable etiologies including uncontrolled hypertension or ischemic heart disease.2 Behavioral risk factors such as tobacco, alcohol, and drug use are known to contribute to heart failure incidence.3–5 Alcohol,6,7 cocaine,8,9 and amphetamines10–12 have cardiotoxic effects. Drug overdose death rates in the U.S.

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