Diabetic retinopathy is a key cause of blindness in the working-age population. Despite the available treatments, some patients present late in the course of the disease when treatment is more difficult. If diabetic retinopathy is detected, tightening of modifiable risk factors (e.g. blood glucose, blood pressure) can slow disease progression. When sight-threatening retinopathy is detected, laser treatment and treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors reduces the risk of visual loss.